We know that acid donates H+ in aqueous solution while base donates OH– ion. Therefore, the mixture of acid and base provides H+ and OH– to produce water. For an example:
HCl donates H+and NaOH donates OH– in water. If we mix both H+and OH– then they will undergo reaction to produce water. The negative Cl– ion from acid and the positive Na+ ion from the base will undergo reaction and produce the salt (NaCl).
Thus, the reaction where acid and base undergo reaction and produce salt and water is called neutralization reaction. In this reaction both acid and base lose their respective acidity and basic property to produce neutral substance salt and water.
We can see from the above reaction one-mole hydrochloric acid neutralizes one-mole sodium hydroxide completely. Therefore, two moles of hydrochloric acid will completely neutralize two moles of sodium hydroxide. Again, the reaction between sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide produces sodium sulfate salt and water. The reaction:
The above reaction where one mole of sulfuric acid neutralizes two moles of sodium hydroxide completely. So, It proves that a specific amount of a specific acid will completely neutralize a specific amount of a specific base.
Related- The Concept of pH and Its Importance
Importance of Neutralization Reaction in Our Daily Life
Acid is secreted in the stomach for the need of our digestion. But If for some reasons, the amount of acid in the stomach increases, we feel uneasy. Generally, it is known as acidity. If this acidity continues for a long time then it creates infection in the stomach. We take an antacid to neutralize this acidity. Since antacid contains Al(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2 which are alkaline in nature. They neutralize the excess acid inside our stomach.
In Dental Care
If we do not clean your mouth after taking some sweets after some time, we feel a sour taste inside our mouth. Actually, there are innumerable bacteria in our mouth which forms various organic acids from our foods taken. For this reason, we feel the sour taste. These acids cause decay of the enamel (the calcium compound) of our teeth. Hence, alkali present in toothpaste neutralizes these acids and save our denture.
Related- Acid Rain and Its Consequences
When plants absorb different metallic ions like K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ etc. from the soil, the soil becomes acidic. It loses fertility. Lime is used to increase the fertility of soil which is chemically calcium oxide (CaO). This lime neutralizes the acid in the soil and brings back to the fertility.
Source- NCTB Books